Dr. Machado leads several deep brain stimulation and neuromodulation clinical trials as well as laboratory research.

His research in deep brain stimulation for thalamic pain syndrome was awarded the National Institutes of Health Director’s New Innovator’s Award. In addition, he conducts deep brain stimulation research for treatment refractory depression as well as obsessive compulsive disorder.

His laboratory in the Lerner Research Institute is focused in developing new strategies for utilizing neuroprosthetic devices such as DBS to improve post-stroke rehabilitation. His current NIH funded research is aimed at evaluating the effects of deep cerebellar stimulation on post-stroke perilesional plasticity and recovery of function.

Publications (Select)

Entire publication list can be found here.

  • Wathen CA, Frizon LA, Maiti TK, Baker KB, Machado AGDeep brain stimulation of the cerebellum for poststroke motor rehabilitation: from laboratory to clinical trial. Neurosurg Focus. 2018 Aug;45(2):E13. doi: 10.3171/2018.5.FOCUS18164 Pubmed PMID: 30064319
  • Potter-Baker KA, Lin Y-L, Machado AG, Conforto AB, Cunningham DA, Sankarasubramanian V, Sakaie K, Plow EB. Variability of motor evoked potentials in stroke explained by corticospinal pathway integrity. Brain Stimul. 2018 Aug;11(4):929–931. doi: 10.1016/j.brs.2018.03.004 Pubmed PMID: 29563050
  • Chan HH, Wathen CA, Mathews ND, Hogue O, Modic JP, Kundalia R, Wyant C, Park H-J, Najm IM, Trapp BD, Machado AG, Baker KB. Lateral cerebellar nucleus stimulation promotes motor recovery and suppresses neuroinflammation in a fluid percussion injury rodent model. Brain Stimul. 2018 Jul 25; doi: 10.1016/j.brs.2018.07.051 Pubmed PMID: 30061053
  • Frizon LA, Hogue O, Achey R, Floden DP, Nagel S, Machado AG, Lobel DA. Quality of Life Improvement Following Deep Brain Parkinson’s Disease: Development of a Prognostic Model. Neurosurgery. 2018 Jul 12; doi: 10.1093/neuros/nyy287 Pubmed PMID: 30010975
  • Frizon LA, Nagel SJ, May FJ, Shao J, Maldonado-Naranjo AL, Fernandez HH, Machado AGOutcomes following deep brain stimulation lead revision or reimplantation for Parkinson’s disease. J Neurosurg. 2018 Jun 22;1–6. doi: 10.3171/2018.1.JNS171660 Pubmed PMID: 29932378
  • Herring EZ, Frizon LA, Hogue O, Mejia JU, Rosenquist R, Bolash RB, Machado AG, Nagel SJ. Long-term Outcomes Using Intrathecal Drug Delivery Systems in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome. Pain Med. 2018 Jun 7; doi: 10.1093/pm/pny104 Pubmed PMID: 29889241
  • Matias CM, Frizon LA, Asfahan F, Uribe JD, Machado AGBrain Shift and Pneumocephalus Assessment During Frame-Based Deep Brain Stimulation Implantation With Intraoperative Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Oper Neurosurg (Hagerstown). 2018 Jun 1;14(6):668–674. doi: 10.1093/ons/opx170 Pubmed PMID: 28973421
  • Gopalakrishnan R, Burgess RC, Malone DA, Lempka SF, Gale JT, Floden DP, Baker KB, Machado AGDeep brain stimulation of the ventral striatal area for poststroke pain syndrome: a magnetoencephalography study. J Neurophysiol. 2018 Jun 1;119(6):2118–2128. doi: 10.1152/jn.00830.2017 Pubmed PMID: 29384450
  • Xiong DD, Ye W, Xiao R, Miller JA, Mroz TE, Steinmetz MP, Nagel SJ, Machado AGPatient-reported allergies predict postoperative outcomes and psychosomatic markers after spine surgery. Spine J. 2018 May 22; doi: 10.1016/j.spinee.2018.05.032 Pubmed PMID: 29800707
  • Shao J, Frizon L, Machado AG, McKee K, Bethoux F, Hartman J, Nagel SJ. Occlusion of the Ascenda Catheter in a Patient with Pump Twiddler’s Sydrome: A Case Report. Anesth Pain Med. 2018 Apr;8(2):e65312. doi: 10.5812/aapm.65312 Pubmed PMID: 30027067
  • Lempka SF, Howell B, Gunalan K, Machado AG, McIntyre CC. Characterization of the stimulus waveforms generated by implantable pulse generators for deep brain stimulation. Clin Neurophysiol. 2018 Apr;129(4):731–742. doi: 10.1016/j.clinph.2018.01.015 Pubmed PMID: 29448149
  • Abbatemarco JR, Willis MA, Wilson RG, Nagel SJ, Machado AG, Bethoux FA. Case Series: Intrathecal Baclofen Therapy in Stiff-Person Syndrome. Neuromodulation. 2018 Mar 13; doi: 10.1111/ner.12765 Pubmed PMID: 29532593
  • Achey RL, Yamamoto E, Sexton D, Hammer C, Lee BS, Butler RS, Thompson NR, Nagel SJ, Machado AG, Lobel DA. Prediction of depression and anxiety via patient-assessed tremor severity, not physician-reported motor symptom severity, in patients with Parkinson’s disease or essential tremor who have undergone deep brain stimulation. J Neurosurg. 2018 Feb 23;1–10. doi: 10.3171/2017.8.JNS1733 Pubmed PMID: 29473781
  • Nagel SJ, Reddy CG, Frizon LA, Chardon MK, Holland M, Machado AG, Gillies GT, Howard MA 3rd, Wilson S. Spinal dura mater: biophysical characteristics relevant to medical device development. J Med Eng Technol. 2018 Feb;42(2):128–139. doi: 10.1080/03091902.2018.1435745 Pubmed PMID: 29569970
  • Menezes IS, Cohen LG, Mello EA, Machado AG, Peckham PH, Anjos SM, Siqueira IL, Conti J, Plow EB, Conforto AB. Combined Brain and Peripheral Nerve Stimulation in Chronic Stroke Patients With Moderate to Severe Motor Impairment. Neuromodulation. 2018 Feb;21(2):176–183. doi: 10.1111/ner.12717 Pubmed PMID: 29067749
  • Matias CM, Frizon LA, Nagel SJ, Lobel DA, Machado AGDeep brain stimulation outcomes in patients implanted under general anesthesia with frame-based stereotaxy and intraoperative MRI. J Neurosurg. 2018 Jan 26;1–7. doi: 10.3171/2017.7.JNS171166 Pubmed PMID: 29372880
  • Frizon LA, Shao J, Maldonado-Naranjo AL, Lobel DA, Nagel SJ, Fernandez HH, Machado AG. The Safety and Efficacy of Using the O-Arm Intraoperative Imaging System for Deep Brain Stimulation Lead Implantation. Neuromodulation. 2017 Dec 20; doi: 10.1111/ner.12744 Pubmed PMID: 29266520
  • Lee BS, Jones J, Lang M, Achey R, Dai L, Lobel DA, Nagel SJ, Machado AG, Bethoux F. Early outcomes after intrathecal baclofen therapy in ambulatory patients with multiple sclerosis. J Neurosurg. 2017 Dec 1;1–7. doi: 10.3171/2017.5.JNS162925 Pubmed PMID: 29192855
  • Hameed S, Singh J, Tricia LB, Machado A, Ruggieri P, Mehta AC. Conglomerate mediastinal mass of a different etiology. Oxf Med Case Reports. 2017 Dec;2017(12):omx072. doi: 10.1093/omcr/omx072 Pubmed PMID: 29308210
  • Floden DP, Matias CM, Wathen CA, Ozinga GE, Hogue O, Machado AG. Contact Location and Neuropsychological Outcomes in Subthalamic Deep Brain Stimulation. Neurosurgery. 2017 Oct 18; doi: 10.1093/neuros/nyx475 Pubmed PMID: 29048606
  • Nagel SJ, Reddy CG, Frizon LA, Holland MT, Machado AG, Gillies GT, Howard MA 3rd. Intrathecal Therapeutics: Device Design, Access Methods, and Complication Mitigation. Neuromodulation. 2017 Sep 29; doi: 10.1111/ner.12693 Pubmed PMID: 28961351
  • Chan HH, Cooperrider J, Chen Z, Gale JT, Baker KB, Wathen CA, Modic CR, Park H-J, Machado AG. Lateral Cerebellar Nucleus Stimulation has Selective Effects on Glutamatergic and GABAergic Perilesional Neurogenesis After Cortical Ischemia in the Rodent Model. Neurosurgery. 2017 Sep 27; doi: 10.1093/neuros/nyx473 Pubmed PMID: 29029200
  • Maldonado-Naranjo AL, Frizon LA, Sabharwal NC, Xiao R, Hogue O, Lobel DA, Machado AG, Nagel SJ. Rate of Complications Following Spinal Cord Stimulation Paddle Electrode Removal. Neuromodulation. 2017 Aug 22; doi: 10.1111/ner.12643 Pubmed PMID: 28833931
  • Xiao R, Miller JA, Lubelski D, Mroz TE, Benzel EC, Krishnaney AA, Machado AClinical Outcomes Following Surgical Management of Coexisting Parkinson Disease and Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy. Neurosurgery. 2017 Aug 1;81(2):350–356. doi: 10.1093/neuros/nyw043 Pubmed PMID: 28327909
  • Kotecha R, Miller JA, Modugula S, Barnett GH, Murphy ES, Reddy CA, Suh JH, Neyman G, Machado A, Nagel S, Chao ST. Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Trigeminal Neuralgia Improves Patient-Reported Quality of Life and Reduces Depression. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2017 Aug 1;98(5):1078–1086. doi: 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2017.04.008 Pubmed PMID: 28721891
  • Sankarasubramanian V, Machado AG, Conforto AB, Potter-Baker KA, Cunningham DA, Varnerin NM, Wang X, Sakaie K, Plow EB.Inhibition versus facilitation of contralesional motor cortices in stroke: Deriving a model to tailor brain stimulation. Clin Neurophysiol. 2017 Jun;128(6):892-902. doi: 10.1016/j.clinph.2017.03.030. Epub 2017 Mar 21. PubMed PMID: 28402865.
  • Frizon LA, Hogue O, Wathen C, Yamamoto E, Sabharwal NC, Jones J, Volovetz J, Maldonado-Naranjo AL, Lobel DA, Machado AG, Nagel SJ. Subsequent Pulse Generator Replacement Surgery Does Not Increase the Infection Rate in Patients With Deep Brain Stimulator Systems: A Review of 1537 Unique Implants at a Single Center.Neuromodulation. 2017 May 3. doi: 10.1111/ner.12605. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 28466562.
  • Lempka SF, Malone DA, Hu B, Baker KB, Wyant A, Ozinga J, Plow EB, Pandya M, Kubu CS, Ford PJ, Machado AG. Randomized clinical trial of deep brain stimulation for post-stroke pain. Ann Neurol. 2017 Apr 5. doi: 10.1002/ana.24927. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 28380672.
  • Nagel SJ, Wilson S, Johnson MD, Machado A, Frizon L, Chardon MK, Reddy CG, Gillies GT, Howard MA 3rd. Spinal Cord Stimulation for Spasticity: Historical Approaches, Current Status, and Future Directions. Neuromodulation. 2017 Apr 2. doi: 10.1111/ner.12591. [Epub ahead of print] Review. PubMed PMID: 28370802.
  • Sankarasubramanian V, Cunningham DA, Potter-Baker KA, Beall EB, Roelle SM, Varnerin NM, Machado AG, Jones SE, Lowe MJ, Plow EB. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Targeting Primary Motor Versus Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortices: Proof-of-Concept Study Investigating Functional Connectivity of Thalamocortical Networks Specific to Sensory-Affective Information Processing. Brain Connect. 2017 Apr;7(3):182-196. doi: 10.1089/brain.2016.0440. PubMed PMID: 28142257; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5399740.
  • Cunningham DA, Roelle SM, Allexandre D, Potter-Baker KA, Sankarasubramanian V, Knutson JS, Yue GH, Machado AG, Plow EB.The effect of motor overflow on bimanual asymmetric force coordination. Exp Brain Res. 2017 Apr;235(4):1097-1105. doi: 10.1007/s00221-016-4867-2. Epub 2017 Jan 16. PubMed PMID: 28091708; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5350018.
  • Chan HH, Cooperrider JL, Park HJ, Wathen CA, Gale JT, Baker KB, Machado AGCrossed Cerebellar Atrophy of the Lateral Cerebellar Nucleus in an Endothelin-1-Induced, Rodent Model of Ischemic Stroke. Front Aging Neurosci. 2017 Feb 17;9:10. doi: 10.3389/fnagi.2017.00010. eCollection 2017. PubMed PMID: 28261086; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5313508.
  • Xiao R, Miller JA, Lubelski D, Mroz TE, Benzel EC, Krishnaney AA, Machado A. Clinical Outcomes Following Surgical Management of Coexisting Parkinson Disease and Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy. Neurosurgery. 2017 Feb 2. doi: 10.1093/neuros/nyw043. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 28327909.
  • Mehanna R, Machado AG, Connett JE, Alsaloum F, Cooper SE. Intraoperative Microstimulation Predicts Outcome of Postoperative Macrostimulation in Subthalamic Nucleus Deep Brain Stimulation for Parkinson’s Disease. Neuromodulation. 2017 Jan 17. doi: 10.1111/ner.12553. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 28093818.
  • Kubu CS, Cooper SE, Machado A, Frazier T, Vitek J, Ford PJ. Insights gleaned by measuring patients’ stated goals for DBS: More than tremor. Neurology. 2017 Jan 10;88(2):124-130. doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000003485. Epub 2016 Dec 2. PubMed PMID: 27913696; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5224715.
  • Wathen C, Kshettry VR, Krishnaney A, Gordon SM, Fraser T, Benzel EC, Modic MT, Butler S, Machado AGThe Association Between Operating Room Personnel and Turnover With Surgical Site Infection in More Than 12 000 Neurosurgical Cases. Neurosurgery. 2016 Dec;79(6):889-894. PubMed PMID: 27465846.
  • Xiao R, Miller JA, Lubelski D, Alberts JL, Mroz TE, Benzel EC, Krishnaney AA, Machado AGQuality of life outcomes following cervical decompression for coexisting Parkinson’s disease and cervical spondylotic myelopathy. Spine J. 2016 Nov;16(11):1358-1366. doi: 10.1016/j.spinee.2016.07.530. Epub 2016 Aug 2. PubMed PMID: 27496286.
  • Kotecha R, Kotecha R, Modugula S, Murphy ES, Jones M, Kotecha R, Reddy CA, Suh JH, Barnett GH, Neyman G, Machado A, Nagel S, Chao ST. Trigeminal Neuralgia Treated With Stereotactic Radiosurgery: The Effect of Dose Escalation on Pain Control and Treatment Outcomes. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2016 Sep 1;96(1):142-8. doi: 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2016.04.013. Epub 2016 Apr 20. PubMed PMID: 27325473.
  • Silva D, Matias C, Bourne S, Nagel S, Machado A, Lobel D. Effectsof chronic alcohol consumption on long-term outcomes of thalamic deep brain stimulation for essential tremor. J Clin Neurosci. 2016 Sep;31:142-6. doi: 10.1016/j.jocn.2016.03.012. Epub 2016 Jul 9. PubMed PMID: 27401226.
  • Gopalakrishnan R, Burgess RC, Lempka SF, Gale JT, Floden DP, Machado AGPain anticipatory phenomena in patients with central poststroke pain: a magnetoencephalography study. J Neurophysiol. 2016 Sep 1;116(3):1387-95. doi: 10.1152/jn.00215.2016. Epub 2016 Jun 29. PubMed PMID: 27358316; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5040387.
  • Rossi PJ, Gunduz A, Judy J, Wilson L, Machado A, Giordano JJ, Elias WJ, Rossi MA, Butson CL, Fox MD, McIntyre CC, Pouratian N, Swann NC, de Hemptinne C, Gross RE, Chizeck HJ, Tagliati M, Lozano AM, Goodman W, Langevin JP, Alterman RL, Akbar U, Gerhardt GA, Grill WM, Hallett M, Herrington T, Herron J, van Horne C, Kopell BH, Lang AE, Lungu C, Martinez-Ramirez D, Mogilner AY, Molina R, Opri E, Otto KJ, Oweiss KG, Pathak Y, Shukla A, Shute J, Sheth SA, Shih LC, Steinke GK, Tröster AI, Vanegas N, Zaghloul KA, Cendejas-Zaragoza L, Verhagen L, Foote KD, Okun MS. Proceedings of the Third Annual Deep Brain Stimulation Think Tank: A Review of Emerging Issues and Technologies. Front Neurosci. 2016 Apr 6;10:119. doi: 10.3389/fnins.2016.00119. eCollection 2016. Review. PubMed PMID: 27092042; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4821860.
  • Kotecha R, Berriochoa CA, Murphy ES, Machado AG, Chao ST, Suh JH, Stephans KL. Report of whole-brain radiation therapy in a patient with an implanted deep brain stimulator: important neurosurgical considerations and radiotherapy practice principles. J Neurosurg. 2016 Apr;124(4):966-70. doi: 10.3171/2015.2.JNS142951. Epub 2015 Aug 28. PubMed PMID: 26315009.
  • Lempka S, Ozinga J, Wyant A, Dong F, Jones S, Nagel S, Machado A. (399) Patient-specific computer models of spinal cord stimulation for chronic pain management. J Pain. 2016 Apr;17(4S):S74. doi: 10.1016/j.jpain.2016.01.376. Epub 2016 Mar 24. PubMed PMID: 28162645.
  • Potter-Baker KA, Bonnett CE, Chabra P, Roelle S, Varnerin N, Cunningham DA, Sankarasubramanian V, Pundik S, Conforto AB, Machado AG, Plow EB. Challenges in Recruitment for the Study of Noninvasive Brain Stimulation in Stroke: Lessons from Deep Brain Stimulation. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 2016 Apr;25(4):927-37. doi: 10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2015.12.044. Epub 2016 Feb 2. PubMed PMID: 26851211; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4799781.
  • Potter-Baker KA, Varnerin NM, Cunningham DA, Roelle SM, Sankarasubramanian V, Bonnett CE, Machado AG, Conforto AB, Sakaie K, Plow EB. Influence of Corticospinal Tracts from Higher Order Motor Cortices on Recruitment Curve Properties in Stroke. Front Neurosci. 2016 Mar 8;10:79. doi: 10.3389/fnins.2016.00079. eCollection 2016. PubMed PMID: 27013942; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4781847.
  • Gopalakrishnan R, Burgess RC, Plow EB, Floden DP, Machado AG. Early event related fields during visually evoked pain anticipation. Clin Neurophysiol. 2016 Mar;127(3):1855-63. doi: 10.1016/j.clinph.2015.11.019. Epub 2015 Dec 5. PubMed PMID: 26733321; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4753121.
  • Cooperrider J, Gale JT, Gopalakrishnan R, Chan HH, Wathen C, Park HJ, Baker KB, Shaikh AG, Machado AG. Differential frequency modulation of neural activity in the lateral cerebellar nucleus in failed and successful grasps. Exp Neurol. 2015 Dec 14. PubMed PMID:26698925.
  • Gopalakrishnan R, Burgess RC, Plow EB, Floden D, Machado AGA Magnetoencephalography study of multi-modal processing of pain anticipation in primary sensory cortices. (2015). Neuroscience Sep 24;304:176-
  • Potter-Baker KA, Bonnett CE, Chabra P, Roelle S, Varnerin N, Cunningham DA, Sankarasubramanian V, Pundik S, Conforto AB, Machado A, Plow EB. A game of hide and seek: Is it possible to recruit more patients for NIBS studies in stroke? J Neurol Sci. 2015 Nov 15;358(1-2):472–474. doi: 10.1016/j.jns.2015.08.030 Pubmed PMID: 26320611
  • Cunningham DA, Potter-Baker KA, Knutson JS, Sankarasubramanian V, Machado AG, Plow EB. Tailoring Brain Stimulation to the Nature of Rehabilitative Therapies in Stroke: A Conceptual Framework Based on their Unique Mechanisms of Recovery. Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am. 2015 Nov;26(4):759–774. doi: 10.1016/j.pmr.2015.07.001 Pubmed PMID: 26522911
  • Cunningham DA, Varnerin N, Machado A, Bonnett C, Janini D, Roelle S, Potter-Baker K, Sankarasubramanian V, Wang X, Yue G, Plow EB. Stimulation targeting higher motor areas in stroke rehabilitation: A proof-of-concept, randomized, double-blinded placebo-controlled study of effectiveness and underlying mechanisms. Restor Neurol Neurosci. 2015 Oct 20; doi: 10.3233/RNN-150574 Pubmed PMID: 26484700
  • Gopalakrishnan R, Burgess RC, Plow EB, Floden DP, Machado AGA magnetoencephalography study of multi-modal processing of pain anticipation in primary sensory cortices. Neuroscience. 2015 Sep 24;304:176–189. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2015.07.049 Pubmed PMID: 26210576
  • Sweet JA, Mitchell LS, Narouze S, Sharan AD, Falowski SM, Schwalb JM, Machado A, Rosenow JM, Petersen EA, Hayek SM, Arle JE, Pilitsis JG. Occipital Nerve Stimulation for the Treatment of Patients With Medically Refractory Occipital Neuralgia: Congress of Neurological Surgeons Systematic Review and Evidence-Based Guideline. Neurosurgery. 2015 Sep;77(3):332–341. doi: 10.1227/NEU.0000000000000872 Pubmed PMID: 26125672
  • Kotecha R, Berriochoa CA, Murphy ES, Machado AG, Chao ST, Suh JH, Stephans KL. Report of whole-brain radiation therapy in a patient with an implanted deep brain stimulator: important neurosurgical considerations and radiotherapy practice principles. J Neurosurg. 2015 Aug 28;1–5. doi: 10.3171/2015.2.JNS142951Pubmed PMID: 26315009
  • Dougherty DD, Rezai AR, Carpenter LL, Howland RH, Bhati MT, O’Reardon JP, Eskandar EN, Baltuch GH, Machado AD, Kondziolka D, Cusin C, Evans KC, Price LH, Jacobs K, Pandya M, Denko T, Tyrka AR, Brelje T, Deckersbach T, Kubu C, Malone DA. A Randomized Sham-Controlled Trial of Deep Brain Stimulation of the Ventral Capsule/Ventral Striatum for Chronic Treatment-Resistant Depression.Biol Psychiatry. 2015 Aug 15;78(4):240–248. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2014.11.023 Pubmed PMID: 25726497
  • Walsh KM, Machado AG, Krishnaney AA. Spinal cord stimulation: a review of the safety literature and proposal for perioperative evaluation and management. Spine J. 2015 Aug 1;15(8):1864–1869. doi: 10.1016/j.spinee.2015.04.043 Pubmed PMID: 25957536
  • Ozinga SJ, Machado AG, Miller Koop M, Rosenfeldt AB, Alberts JL. Objective assessment of postural stability in Parkinson’s disease using mobile technology. Mov Disord. 2015 Aug;30(9):1214–1221. doi: 10.1002/mds.26214 Pubmed PMID: 25809137


Cleveland FES Center

Institute Chair, Neurological Institute
Cleveland Clinic


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Theresa Patterson

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(216) 636-0505

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