My research interests lie in studying human walking performance and stability, and in the intrinsic and extrinsic criteria that influence them.

These criteria include muscle strength and endurance, joint stiffness, proprioception, and anthropometry as well as neural and conventional prostheses, bracing and footwear properties. I am especially interested in how these factors interact to keep gait stable and to what extent they can be modified and controlled to improve walking performance and musculoskeletal health.

Neuroprosthetics, in particular, have the promise to be of considerable benefit to individuals with compromised gait, allowing them to gain mobility and some of the numerous and tangible system-wide benefits of movement. To this end, it is essential to discover how to develop and use neuroprostheses to maximize gait performance and stability.

Research Programs

  • Lower Extremity FES Program

Co-Investigator Programs

  • Ohio Neurostimulation and Neuromodulation Partnership, National Institutes of Health
  • Enhancing Neuroprosthesis Performance with Cuff Electrodes, National Institutes of Health
  • Electrical Treatment of Reflex Incontinence, Department of Veterans Affairs Rehabilitation Research and Development Service
  • Development and testing of a novel device for diagnosis of urinary incontinence.
  • Development of a muscle powered cardiac assist device, NASA

Publications (Select)

Entire publication list can be found here.

  • van den Bogert AJ, Geijtenbeek T, Even-Zohar O, Steenbrink F, Hardin EC. A real-time system for biomechanical analysis of human movement and muscle function. Med Biol Eng Comput. 2013 Oct;51(10):1069-77. doi: 10.1007/s11517-013-1076-z. Epub 2013 Jul 25. PubMed PMID: 23884905.
  • Hardin EC, Kobetic R, Triolo RJ. 
Ambulation and spinal cord injury. Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am. 2013 May;24(2):355-70. doi: 10.1016/j.pmr.2012.11.002. Epub 2013 Jan 21. PubMed PMID: 23598268.
  • Van den Bogert AJ, Geijtenbeek T, Even-Zohar O, Steenbrink F, Hardin EC
. A real-time system for biomechanical analysis of human movement and muscle function. Med Biol Eng Comput. 2013 Oct; 51(10): 1069-77. doi: 10.1007/s11517-013-1076-z. Epub 2013 Jul 25. PubMed PMID: 23884905; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3751375.
  • Bailey SN, Hardin EC, Kobetic R, Boggs LM, Pinault G, Triolo RJ. Neurotherapeutic and neuroprosthetic effects of implanted functional electrical stimulation for ambulation after incomplete spinal cord injury. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2010;47(1):7-16. PubMed PMID: 20437323.
  • Hardin E, Kobetic R, Murray L, Corado-Ahmed M, Pinault G, Sakai J, Bailey SN, Ho C, Triolo RJ. Walking after incomplete spinal cord injury using an implanted FES system: a case report. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2007;44(3):333-46. PubMed PMID: 18247230.


Cleveland FES Center

Biomedical Engineer
Louis Stokes Cleveland VA Medical Center


Program Contact
Elizabeth Hardin

Contact Number
(216) 791-3800 x 64698

Contact Email