I am an Associate Research Staff Member at the Cleveland Clinic Center for Neurological Restoration. My overall expertise is in understanding brain rhythms using neurophysiological techniques (Electroencephalography, Magnetoencephalography, Local field potentials), with the aim of improving diagnosis (biomarker development) and developing long term treatment solutions (translational clinical research) for heterogeneous neurological disorders, specifically chronic pain. We specifically use a computational model-driven approach to unveil dynamic trends in polyrhythmic brain activity underlying latent behaviors such as fear, expectations and avoidance that inadvertently exacerbate suffering and disability.

My specific interests are in examining the neurophysiological mechanisms of chronic pain and addiction using models of neural oscillatory patterns and develop novel multimodal interventions to improve clinical outcomes in pain management. My long term vision is to establish a translational neurophysiology program focused at developing assistive tools and models for chronic pain and addiction that can aid in personalized multidisciplinary treatment approaches to concurrently address sensory as well as behavioral deficits.

Publications (Select)

Entire publication list can be found here.

  • Bore JC, Campbell BA, Cho H, Gopalakrishnan R, Machado AG, Baker KB, ‘Prediction of mild Parkinsonism revealed by neural oscillatory changes and machine learning.’ Journal of Neurophysiology 2020
  • Jones SE, Lempka SF, Gopalakrishnan R, Baker KB, Beall E, Bhattacharya P, Huang X,  Lin J, Lowe M, Malone D,  Machado AG, ‘Simultaneous fMRI during Deep Brain Stimulation of Limbic Neural Pathways to Reduce Thalamic Pain’, Neuromodulation 2020
  • Frizon L , Gopalakrishnan  R , Hogue O, Floden D , Nagel S , Baker  KB , Isolan G, Stefani M, Machado AG, ‘The Role of Cortical Thickness as Outcome Predictor after DBS for Parkinson's Disease’, Parkinsonism 2019
  • Gopalakrishnan R, Burgess RC, Malone DA, Lempka SF, Gale JT, Floden DP, Baker KB,  Machado AG, “Deep Brain Stimulation of the Ventral Striatal Area for Post-stroke Pain Syndrome: A Magnetoencephalography Study”, Journal of Neurophysiology, 2018 Jan 31.
  • Huffman KL, Gopalakrishnan R, Martincin KM, Aboussouan AB, Kisela E, Thompson NR, Sweis GW, Jimenez XF, “Utilizing Psychophysical Measurements of Central Sensitization to Evaluate the Interdisciplinary Treatment of Fibromyalgia” The Journal of Pain, Volume 18, Issue 4, S53 2017
  • Gopalakrishnan R, Burgess RC, Lempka SF, Gale JT, Floden DP, Machado AG, “Pain anticipatory phenomena in patients with central post-stroke pain: a magnetoencephalography study” Journal of Neurophysiology, 116:3, 1387-1395, 2016
  • Cooperrider J, Gale JT, Gopalakrishnan R, Chan H, Wathen C, Park HJ, Baker K, Shaikh A, Machado AG, “Differential Frequency Modulation of Neural Activity in the Lateral Cerebellar Nucleus in Failed and Successful Grasps” Experimental Neurology, 277:27-34. 2015
  • Gopalakrishnan R, Burgess RC, Plow EB, Floden D, Machado AG. ‘Early event related fields during visually evoked pain anticipation’, Clinical Neurophysiology, S1388-2457(15)01121-9. 2015
  • Gopalakrishnan R, Burgess RC, Plow EB, Floden D, Machado AG. ‘A magnetoencephalography study of multi-modal processing of pain anticipation in primary sensory cortices’, Neuroscience, 304 (2015) 176–189
  • Machado AG, Gopalakrishnan R, Plow EB, Burgess RC, Mosher JC, ‘A magnetoencephalography study of visual processing of pain anticipation’, Journal of Neurophysiology 112(2): 276-286. 2014
  • Gopalakrishnan R, Machado AG, Burgess RC, Mosher JC, ‘The use of contact heat evoked potential stimulator (CHEPS) in magnetoencephalography for pain research’, Journal of Neuroscience Methods 220(1): 55-63. 2013


Associate Staff, Center for Neurological Restoration, Neurological Institute
Cleveland Clinic

Joint Staff, Biomedical Engineering, Lerner Research Institute
Cleveland Clinic

Assistant Professor, Lerner College of Medicine
Cleveland Clinic

Adjunct Professor, Department of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering
Cleveland State University

Cleveland FES Center


Program Contact
Raghavan Gopalakrishnan

Contact Email