My ongoing research is investigating high-frequency waveforms for inducing a rapid yet fully reversible peripheral motor nerve block, which will have clinical applications in the control of spasticity and other movement disorders.

The various aspects of this research are; computer modeling to investigate the mechanism of high-frequency block, designing wave forms that will not produce an onset response in the nerve when first turned on, designing and testing optimal nerve cuff electrodes for block testing chronic safety of these waveforms in animal models, ex-vivo testing of human nerves and pre-operative testing in human subjects.

Publications (Select)

Entire publication list can be found here.

  • Bhadra N, Foldes E, Vrabec T, Kilgore K, Bhadra N. Temporary persistence of conduction block after prolonged kilohertz frequency alternating current on rat sciatic nerve. J Neural Eng. 2018 Jan 8;15(1):016012. doi: 10.1088/1741-2552/aa89a4 Pubmed PMID: 29309274
  • Bhadra N, Vrabec TL, Bhadra N, Kilgore KL. Reversible conduction block in peripheral nerve using electrical waveforms. Bioelectron Med (Lond). 2018 Jan;1(1):39–54. doi: 10.2217/bem-2017-0004 Pubmed PMID: 29480897
  • Vrabec T, Bhadra N, Van Acker G, Bhadra N, Kilgore K. Continuous Direct Current Nerve Block Using Multi Contact High Capacitance Electrodes. IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng. 2017 Jun;25(6):517–529. doi: 10.1109/TNSRE.2016.2589541 Pubmed PMID: 27411224
  • Vrabec T, Bhadra N, Wainright J, Bhadra N, Franke M, Kilgore K. Characterization of high capacitance electrodes for the application of direct current electrical nerve block. Med Biol Eng Comput. 2015 Sep 11. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 26358242.
  • Franke M, Vrabec T, Wainright J, Bhadra N, Bhadra N, Kilgore K. Combined KHFAC + DC nerve block without onset or reduced nerve conductivity after block. J Neural Eng. 2014 Oct;11(5):056012. doi: 10.1088/1741-2560/11/5/056012 Pubmed PMID: 25115572
  • Franke M, Bhadra N, Bhadra N, Kilgore K. Direct current contamination of kilohertz frequency alternating current waveforms. J Neurosci Methods. 2014 Jul 30;232:74–83. doi: 10.1016/j.jneumeth.2014.04.002 Pubmed PMID: 24820914
  • Lothet EH, Kilgore KL, Bhadra N, Bhadra N, Vrabec T, Wang YT, Jansen ED, Jenkins MW, Chiel HJ. Alternating current and infrared produce an onset-free reversible nerve block. Neurophotonics. 2014 Jul;1(1):011010. doi: 10.1117/1.NPh.1.1.011010 Pubmed PMID: 26157966
  • Kilgore KL, Bhadra N. Reversible nerve conduction block using kilohertz frequency alternating current. Neuromodulation. 2014 Apr;17(3):242–254; discussion 254–255. doi: 10.1111/ner.12100Pubmed PMID: 23924075
  • Boger AS, Bhadra N, Gustafson KJ. High frequency sacral root nerve block allows bladder voiding. Neurourol Urodyn. 2012 Jun;31(5):677–682. doi: 10.1002/nau.21075 Pubmed PMID: 22473837
  • Ackermann DM, Bhadra N, Gerges M, Thomas PJ. Dynamics and sensitivity analysis of high-frequency conduction block. J Neural Eng. 2011 Dec;8(6):065007. doi: 10.1088/1741-2560/8/6/065007 Pubmed PMID: 22056338
  • Ackermann DM, Bhadra N, Foldes EL, Kilgore KL. Separated interface nerve electrode prevents direct current induced nerve damage. J Neurosci Methods. 2011 Sep 30;201(1):173–176. doi: 10.1016/j.jneumeth.2011.01.016 Pubmed PMID: 21276819
  • Ackermann DM, Ethier C, Foldes EL, Oby ER, Tyler D, Bauman M, Bhadra N, Miller L, Kilgore KL. Electrical conduction block in large nerves: high-frequency current delivery in the nonhuman primate. Muscle Nerve. 2011 Jun;43(6):897–899. doi: 10.1002/mus.22037 Pubmed PMID: 21607972
  • Foldes EL, Ackermann DM, Bhadra N, Kilgore KL, Bhadra NDesign, fabrication and evaluation of a conforming circumpolar peripheral nerve cuff electrode for acute experimental use. J Neurosci Methods. 2011 Mar 15;196(1):31–37. doi: 10.1016/j.jneumeth.2010.12.020 Pubmed PMID: 21187115
  • Hart RL, Bhadra N, Montague FW, Kilgore KL, Peckham PH. Design and testing of an advanced implantable neuroprosthesis with myoelectric control. IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng. 2011 Feb;19(1):45–53. doi: 10.1109/TNSRE.2010.2079952 Pubmed PMID: 20876029
  • Ackermann DM, Bhadra N, Foldes EL, Kilgore KL. Conduction block of whole nerve without onset firing using combined high frequency and direct current. Med Biol Eng Comput. 2011 Feb;49(2):241–251. doi: 10.1007/s11517-010-0679-x Pubmed PMID: 20890673
  • Gerges M, Foldes EL, Ackermann DM, Bhadra N, Bhadra N, Kilgore KL. Frequency- and amplitude-transitioned waveforms mitigate the onset response in high-frequency nerve block. J Neural Eng. 2010 Dec;7(6):066003. doi: 10.1088/1741-2560/7/6/066003 Pubmed PMID: 20966536
  • Ackermann DM, Bhadra N, Foldes EL, Wang X-F, Kilgore KL. Effect of nerve cuff electrode geometry on onset response firing in high-frequency nerve conduction block. IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng. 2010 Dec;18(6):658–665. doi: 10.1109/TNSRE.2010.2071882 Pubmed PMID: 20813650
  • Ackermann DM, Foldes EL, Bhadra N, Kilgore KL. Nerve conduction block using combined thermoelectric cooling and high frequency electrical stimulation. J Neurosci Methods. 2010 Oct 30;193(1):72–76. doi: 10.1016/j.jneumeth.2010.07.043 Pubmed PMID: 20705099


Cleveland FES Center

Associate Professor, Department of Biomedical Engineering
Case Western Reserve University

Bioscientific Staff, Department of Orthopaedics
MetroHealth Medical Center


Program Contact
Niloy Bhadra

Contact Number
(216) 778-3802

Contact Email