Dr. Ruff’s research involved employing FES stimulation to help people who have paralysis due to stroke to relearn how to use a paretic arm or to relearn how to walk.

FES is used in conjunction with other technologies, such as partial weight-supported treadmill training and robotic-assisted training.

Retired 2014

Publications (Select)

  • Ruff RL, Rutecki P. Faster, slower, but never better: Mutations of the skeletal muscle acetylcholine receptor. Neurology. 2012 May 16. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 22592368.
  • Ruff RL, Riechers RG 2nd, Wang XF, Piero T, Ruff SS. A case-control study examining whether neurological deficits and PTSD in combat veterans are related to episodes of mild TBI. BMJ Open. 2012 Mar 8;2(2):e000312. Print 2012. PubMed PMID: 22431700; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3312078.
  • Kaminski H, Cutter G, Ruff RL, Wolfe G. Evidence-based guideline update: plasmapheresis in neurologic disorders. Neurology. 2011 Oct 25;77(17):e101-2;author reply e103-4. PubMed PMID: 22135813.
  • Daly JJ, Kristen Roenigk, Roger Cheng, Ruff RL.† Abnormal Leg Muscle Latencies and Relationship to Dyscoordination and Walking Disability after Stroke.† Rehabil Res Pract. 2011; 2011: 313980.†† Published online 2010 December 29.† doi: 10.1155/2011/313980 PMCID: PMC3221243
  • Ruff RL, Ronald G Riechers, II, Suzanne S Ruff.†† Relationships between mild traumatic brain injury sustained in combat and post-traumatic stress disorder.† F1000 Med Rep. 2010; 2: 64.†† Published online 2010 August 19.† doi: 10.3410/M2-64 PMCID: PMC2990449
  • Ruff RL, Vanda A. Lennon.†† How Myasthenia Gravis Alters the Safety Factor for Neuromuscular Transmission.† J Neuroimmunol.† Author manuscript; available in PMC 2009 September 15. Published in final edited form as:†† J Neuroimmunol.† 2008 September 15;† 201-202† : 13ñ20.† Published online 2008 July 15.† doi: 10.1016/j.jneuroim.2008.04.038 PMCID: PMC2646503
  • Becher K, Figueiredo CP, Muhle C, Ruff R, Mendes PM, Hoffmann KP. Design and realization of a wireless sensor gateway for health monitoring. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2010;1:374-7. PubMed PMID: 21097188.
  • Ruff R, Poppendieck W, Gail A, Westendorff S, Russold M, Lewis S, Meiners T, Hoffmann KP. Acquisition of myoelectric signals to control a hand prosthesis with implantable epimysial electrodes. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2010;1:5070-3.† PubMed PMID: 21096029.
  • Ruff RL : Voltage sensor charge loss accounts for most cases of hypokalemic periodic paralysis.† Neurology 74(3):269-70, 2010.
  • Ruff RL, Riechers RG, Ruff SS. Relationships between mild traumatic brain injury sustained in combat and post-traumatic stress disorder. F1000 Med Rep. 2010 Aug 19;2:64. PubMed PMID: 21173852; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2990449.
  • Ruff RL, Ruff SS, Wang X-F: Combat Veterans with Mild TBI Due to Explosions Have Persisting Neurological Deficits.† Neurology 74(Suppl. 2):A153, 2010.
  • Ruff RL. Interesting findings in an initial clinical study of neuropeptides and pain. Pain Med. 2010 Oct;11(10):1440-2. doi: 10.1111/j.1526-4637.2010.00945.x. Epub 2010 Sep 7. PubMed PMID: 21199298
  • Ruff RL:† Management of Stroke Rehabilitation Working Group. VA/DOD Clinical practice guideline for the management of stroke† rehabilitation. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2010;47(9):1-43. PubMed PMID: 21213454.




Medical Director
Cleveland FES Center

Professor, Department of Neurology, Department of Neuroscience
Case Western Reserve University

National Director for Neurology, Veterans Health Administration
Department of Veterans Affairs

Chief, Neurology Service
Louis Stokes Cleveland VA Medical Center