Areas of Interest

  • Design of neural stimulation electrodes for FES applications
  • Neuroprostheses and Feedback control for Lower Urinary Tract Rehabilitation
  • Afferent based stimulus paradigms
  • Neuroprosthetic applications of High Frequency nerve block

Publications (Select)

  • Bhadra N, Foldes E, Vrabec T, Kilgore K, Bhadra N. Temporary persistence of conduction block after prolonged kilohertz frequency alternating current on rat sciatic nerve. J Neural Eng. 2018 Jan 8;15(1):016012. doi: 10.1088/1741-2552/aa89a4 Pubmed PMID: 29309274
  • Bhadra N, Vrabec TL, Bhadra N, Kilgore KL. Reversible conduction block in peripheral nerve using electrical waveforms. Bioelectron Med (Lond). 2018 Jan;1(1):39–54. doi: 10.2217/bem-2017-0004 Pubmed PMID: 29480897
  • Kumsa DW, Bhadra N, Hudak EM, Mortimer JT. Electron transfer processes occurring on platinum neural stimulating electrodes: pulsing experiments for cathodic-first, charge-balanced, biphasic pulses for 0.566 k 2.3 in rat subcutaneous tissues. J Neural Eng. 2017 Oct;14(5):056003. doi: 10.1088/1741-2552/aa7a4a Pubmed PMID: 28813367
  • Vrabec T, Bhadra N, Van Acker G, Bhadra N, Kilgore K. Continuous Direct Current Nerve Block Using Multi Contact High Capacitance Electrodes. IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng. 2017 Jun;25(6):517–529. doi: 10.1109/TNSRE.2016.2589541 Pubmed PMID: 27411224
  • Kumsa DW, Bhadra N, Hudak EM, Kelley SC, Untereker DF, Mortimer JT. Electron transfer processes occurring on platinum neural stimulating electrodes: a tutorial on the i(V e) profile. J Neural Eng. 2016 Oct;13(5):052001. doi: 10.1088/1741-2560/13/5/052001. Epub 2016 Aug 12. PubMed PMID: 27518125.
  • Vrabec T, Bhadra N, Wainright J, Bhadra N, Franke M, Kilgore K. Characterization of high capacitance electrodes for the application of direct current electrical nerve block. Med Biol Eng Comput. 2015 Sep 11. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 26358242.
  • McCoin JL, Bhadra N, Brose SW, Gustafson KJ. Does patterned afferent stimulation of sacral dermatomes suppress urethral sphincter reflexes in individuals with spinal cord injury? Neurourol Urodyn. 2015 Mar;34(3):219–223. doi: 10.1002/nau.22545 Pubmed PMID: 24510801
  • Franke M, Vrabec T, Wainright J, Bhadra N, Bhadra N, Kilgore K. Combined KHFAC + DC nerve block without onset or reduced nerve conductivity after block. J Neural Eng. 2014 Oct;11(5):056012. doi: 10.1088/1741-2560/11/5/056012 Pubmed PMID: 25115572
  • Franke M, Bhadra N, Bhadra N, Kilgore K. Direct current contamination of kilohertz frequency alternating current waveforms. J Neurosci Methods. 2014 Jul 30;232:74–83. doi: 10.1016/j.jneumeth.2014.04.002 Pubmed PMID: 24820914
  • Lothet EH, Kilgore KL, Bhadra N, Bhadra N, Vrabec T, Wang YT, Jansen ED, Jenkins MW, Chiel HJ. Alternating current and infrared produce an onset-free reversible nerve block. Neurophotonics. 2014 Jul;1(1):011010. doi: 10.1117/1.NPh.1.1.011010 Pubmed PMID: 26157966
  • Boger A, Bhadra N, Gustafson KJ. Different clinical electrodes achieve similar electrical nerve conduction block. J Neural Eng. 2013 Oct;10(5):056016. doi: 10.1088/1741-2560/10/5/056016Pubmed PMID: 23986089
  • McCoin JL, Bhadra N, Gustafson KJ. Electrical stimulation of sacral dermatomes can suppress aberrant urethral reflexes in felines with chronic spinal cord injury. Neurourol Urodyn. 2013 Jan;32(1):92–97. doi: 10.1002/nau.22276 Pubmed PMID: 22674730
  • Foldes EL, Ackermann DM, Bhadra N, Kilgore KL, Bhadra N. Design, fabrication and evaluation of a conforming circumpolar peripheral nerve cuff electrode for acute experimental use. J Neurosci Methods. 2011 Mar 15;196(1):31–37. doi: 10.1016/j.jneumeth.2010.12.020 Pubmed PMID: 21187115
  • Gerges M, Foldes EL, Ackermann DM, Bhadra N, Bhadra N, Kilgore KL. Frequency- and amplitude-transitioned waveforms mitigate the onset response in high-frequency nerve block. J Neural Eng. 2010 Dec;7(6):066003. doi: 10.1088/1741-2560/7/6/066003 Pubmed PMID: 20966536
  • Mariano TY, Bhadra N, Gustafson KJ. Suppression of reflex urethral responses by sacral dermatome stimulation in an acute spinalized feline model. Neurourol Urodyn. 2010 Mar;29(3):494–500. doi: 10.1002/nau.20717 Pubmed PMID: 19283867



Cleveland FES Center

Principal Researcher, Neural Engineering Center, Department of Biomedical Engineering
Case Western Reserve University

Biomedical Engineer
Louis Stokes Cleveland VA Medical Center


Program Contact
Narendra Bhadra

Contact Number
(216) 368-6601

Contact Email