My research interests are in the areas of musculoskeletal computer modeling and its applications to human locomotion.

I develop and solve large scale dynamic and static optimization problems that arise in the study of human locomotion. 

These include applications to the control of human bipedal standing and also control of seated postures for individuals with spinal cord injury and other balance disorders. The models I develop help other researchers and clinicians to resolve issues and get insights about the workings of the intact human central nervous system. This is all done without having to resort to time-consuming and often dangerous experiments with human subjects

Publications (Select)

  • Nataraj R, Audu ML, Triolo RJ. Simulating the restoration of standing balance at leaning postures with functional neuromuscular stimulation following spinal cord injury. Med Biol Eng Comput. 2015 Sep 1. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 26324246.
  • Audu ML, Triolo RJ. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Contributions to Seated Balance in the Sagittal and Coronal Planes: Implications for Trunk Control After Spinal Cord Injury. J Appl Biomech. 2015 Mar 17. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 25780873.
  • Nataraj R, Audu ML, Li ZM. Digit mechanics in relation to endpoint compliance during precision pinch. J Biomech. 2015 Feb 26;48(4):672-80. doi: 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2014.12.040. Epub 2015 Jan 3. PubMed PMID: 25596633; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4330130.
  • Audu ML, Lombardo LM, Schnellenberger JR, Foglyano KM, Miller ME, Triolo RJ. A neuroprosthesis for control of seated balance after spinal cord injury. J Neuroeng Rehabil. 2015 Jan 21;12(1):8. doi: 10.1186/1743-0003-12-8. PubMed PMID: 25608888; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4326199.
  • Nataraj R, Audu ML, Triolo RJ. Modified Newton-Raphson method to tune feedback gains of control system for standing by functional neuromuscular stimulation following spinal cord injury. Appl Bionics Biomech. 2014 Nov 1;11(4):169-174. PubMed PMID: 25684981; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4326073.
  • Ho CH, Triolo RJ, Elias AL, Kilgore KL, DiMarco AF, Bogie K, Vette AH, Audu ML, Kobetic R, Chang SR, Chan KM, Dukelow S, Bourbeau DJ, Brose SW, Gustafson KJ, Kiss ZH, Mushahwar VK. Functional electrical stimulation and spinal cord injury. Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am. 2014 Aug;25(3):631-54, ix. doi:10.1016/j.pmr.2014.05.001. PubMed PMID: 25064792.
  • Bulea TC, Kobetic R, Audu ML, Schnellenberger JR, Pinault G, Triolo RJ. Forward stair descent with hybrid neuroprosthesis after paralysis: Single case study demonstrating feasibility. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2014;51(7):1077-94. doi: 10.1682/JRRD.2013.12.0257. PubMed PMID: 25437932.
  • Murphy JO, Audu ML, Lombardo LM, Foglyano KM, Triolo RJ. Feasibility of closed-loop controller for righting seated posture after spinal cord injury. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2014;51(5):747-60. doi: 10.1682/JRRD.2013.09.0200. PubMed PMID: 25333890.
  • Audu ML, Gartman SJ, Nataraj R, Triolo RJ. Posture-dependent control of stimulation in standing neuroprosthesis: simulation feasibility study. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2014;51(3):481-96. doi: 10.1682/JRRD.2013.06.0150. PubMed PMID: 25019669.
  • To CS, Kobetic R, Bulea TC, Audu ML, Schnellenberger JR, Pinault G, Triolo RJ. Sensor-based hip control with hybrid neuroprosthesis for walking in paraplegia. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2014;51(2):229-44. doi: 10.1682/JRRD.2012.10.0190. PubMed PMID: 24933721.
  • Bulea TC, Kobetic R, Audu ML, Triolo RJ. 
Stance controlled knee flexion improves stimulation driven walking after spinal cord injury. J Neuroeng Rehabil. 2013 Jul 4;10:68. doi: 10.1186/1743-0003-10-68. PubMed PMID: 23826711; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3708761.
  • Bulea TC, Kobetic R, Audu ML, Schnellenberger JR, Triolo RJ. Finite state control of a variable impedance hybrid neuroprosthesis for locomotion after paralysis. IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng. 2013 Jan;21(1):141-51. doi: 10.1109/TNSRE.2012.2227124. Epub 2012 Nov 15. PubMed PMID: 23193320; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3830532.
  • Triolo RJ, Bailey SN, Miller ME, Lombardo LM, Audu ML. 
Effects of stimulating hip and trunk muscles on seated stability, posture, and reach after spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2013 Sep;94(9):1766-75. doi: 10.1016/j.apmr.2013.02.023. Epub 2013 Mar 13. PubMed PMID: 23500182.
  • Triolo RJ, Bailey SN, Lombardo LM, Miller ME, Foglyano K, Audu ML. 
Effects of intramuscular trunk stimulation on manual wheelchair propulsion mechanics in 6 subjects with spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2013 Oct;94(10):1997-2005. doi: 10.1016/j.apmr.2013.04.010. Epub 2013 Apr 26. PubMed PMID: 23628377.
  • Nataraj R, Audu ML, Triolo RJ. Comparing joint kinematics and center of mass acceleration as feedback for control of standing balance by functional neuromuscular stimulation. J Neuroeng Rehabil. 2012 May 6;9(1):25. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 22559852.




Cleveland FES Center

Research Associate Professor, Department of Biomedical Engineering
Case Western Reserve University


Program Contact
Musa Audu

Contact Number
(216) 791-3800 x3821

Contact Email