Makowski, Nathan, PhD

Research Statement:

My primary research interest is determining the contributions of post-stroke impairments to function and developing interventions for motor restoration after stroke. The present focus is on functional electrical stimulation (FES) to assist with gait. There are two main areas of research I am currently engaged in:

  • Implanted FES systems for gait restoration after stroke
  • Determining the mechanisms that contribute to gait deficits and developing combinatorial interventions to address the different impairments.
Professional Affiliations:
  • Investigator, Cleveland FES Center
  • Instructor, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, MetroHealth Medical Center, Cleveland, OH
  • Research Scientist, Louis Stokes Cleveland VA Medical Center, Cleveland, OH
Publications (select):
  • Makowski N, Knutson J, Chae J, Crago P. Control of Robotic Assistance Using Poststroke Residual Voluntary Effort. IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng. 2014 Oct 31. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 25373107.
  • Crago PE, Makowski NS, Cole NM. Contributions to muscle force and EMG by combined neural excitation and electrical stimulation. J Neural Eng. 2014 Oct;11(5):056022. doi: 10.1088/1741-2560/11/5/056022. Epub 2014 Sep 22. PubMed PMID: 25242203; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4238908.
  • Crago PE, Makowski NS. Alteration of neural action potential patterns by axonal stimulation: the importance of stimulus location. J Neural Eng. 2014 Oct;11(5):056016. doi: 10.1088/1741-2560/11/5/056016. Epub 2014 Aug 27. PubMed PMID: 25161163; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4238903.
  • Knutson JS, Harley MY, Hisel TZ, Makowski NS, Chae J. Contralaterally controlled functional electrical stimulation for recovery of elbow extension and hand opening after stroke: a pilot case series study. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2014 Jun;93(6):528-39. doi: 10.1097/PHM.0000000000000066. PubMed PMID: 24508938; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4029922.
  • Makowski NS, Knutson JS, Chae J, Crago PE. Functional electrical stimulation to augment poststroke reach and hand opening in the presence of voluntary effort: a pilot study. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2014 Mar-Apr;28(3):241-9. doi: 10.1177/1545968313505913. Epub 2013 Nov 22. PubMed PMID: 24270058; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4128408.
  • Makowski N, Knutson J, Chae J, Crago P. Interaction of poststroke voluntary effort and functional neuromuscular electrical stimulation. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2013;50(1):85-98. PubMed PMID: 23516086; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3605753.
  • Crago PE, Makowski NS. Muscle response to simultaneous stimulated and physiological action potential trains–a simulation study. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2012;2012:1839-42. doi: 10.1109/EMBC.2012.6346309. PubMed PMID: 23366270; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4229042.
  • Makowski NS, Knutson JS, Chae J, Crago P. Variations in neuromuscular electrical stimulation’s ability to increase reach and hand opening during voluntary effort after stroke. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2012;2012:318-21. doi: 10.1109/EMBC.2012.6345933. PubMed PMID: 23365894; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3561721.
  • Knutson JS, Harley MY, Hisel TZ, Makowski NS, Fu MJ, Chae J. Contralaterally controlled functional electrical stimulation for stroke rehabilitation. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2012;2012:314-7. doi: 10.1109/EMBC.2012.6345932. Review. PubMed PMID: 23365893; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3561720.
Contact Name: Nathan Makowski
Contact Number: (216) 791-3800 x3135
Contact Email: nmakowski@fescenter.org