Gopalakrishnan, Raghavan, PhD, MBA

raghavan gopalakrishnanResearch Statement

I am a research engineer/scientist with a special interest in medical signal processing and electrophysiology. Over the past 15 years, I have worked in several different research projects to study illnesses related to musculo-skeletal, cardiovascular and neurological disorders. Since 2010, I have been a co-investigator on several research projects focused primarily on signal processing aspects of neural oscillations. In a cutting edge clinical trial (NIH DP2OD006469) to study the effects of Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) on the affective component of post-stroke chronic pain, I studied neural oscillations relating to pain affect and pain using Magnetoencephalography (MEG) and Electroencephalography (EEG). The project is based on the premise that chronic pain is not merely a sensory phenomenon, but modulated by affective and cognitive spheres as well. The main goal was to explore, before and after DBS treatment, the utility of MEG oscillations as possible objective bio-markers of contextual processes that modulated pain. In another project (NIH R01HD061363), I investigated using Local Field Potentials (LFP) and spike data, the spectral profile of rat dentate nucleus and oscillatory components that were differentially modulated during successful and unsuccessful performance of a reach and grasp task. Currently, I am involved in a clinical trial (NIH UH3NS100543) to study the effects of DBS on dentatothalamocortical pathway in promoting motor recovery. Overall, my research goals are to come up with novel signal processing solutions to analyze neurological oscillations to assist in the development of diagnostic and therapeutic tools. Currently, I am working on extending my prior research on chronic pain to investigate oscillopathies using multivariate electrophysiological functional connectivity approach.


Professional Affiliations

  • Investigator, Cleveland FES Center
  • Investigator, Center for Neurological Restoration, Neurological Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH
  • Investigator, Chronic Pain Rehabilitation Center, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH
  • Investigator, Magnetoencephalography (MEG) Laboratory, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH

Publications (Select)

  • Gopalakrishnan R, Burgess RC, Malone DA, Lempka SF, Gale JT, Floden DP, Baker KB, Machado AG. Deep brain stimulation of the ventral striatal area for poststroke pain syndrome: a magnetoencephalography study. J Neurophysiol. 2018 Jun 1;119(6):2118-2128. doi: 10.1152/jn.00830.2017. Epub 2018 Jan 31. PubMed PMID: 29384450; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6032114.
  • Gopalakrishnan R, Burgess RC, Lempka SF, Gale JT, Floden DP, Machado AG, “Pain anticipatory phenomena in patients with central post-stroke pain: a magnetoencephalography study” Journal of Neurophysiology, 116:3, 1387-1395, 2016
  • Cooperrider J, Gale JT, Gopalakrishnan R, Chan H, Wathen C, Park HJ, Baker K, Shaikh A, Machado AG, “Differential Frequency Modulation of Neural Activity in the Lateral Cerebellar Nucleus in Failed and Successful Grasps” Experimental Neurology, 277:27-34. 2015
  • Gopalakrishnan R, Burgess RC, Plow EB, Floden D, Machado AG. ‘Early event related fields during visually evoked pain anticipation’, Clinical Neurophysiology, S1388-2457(15)01121-9. 2015
  • Gopalakrishnan R, Burgess RC, Plow EB, Floden D, Machado AG. ‘A magnetoencephalography study of multi-modal processing of pain anticipation in primary sensory cortices’, Neuroscience, 304 (2015) 176–189
  • Machado AG, Gopalakrishnan R, Plow EB, Burgess RC, Mosher JC, ‘A magnetoencephalography study of visual processing of pain anticipation’, Journal of Neurophysiology 112(2): 276-286. 2014
  • Gopalakrishnan R, Machado AG, Burgess RC, Mosher JC, ‘The use of contact heat evoked potential stimulator (CHEPS) in magnetoencephalography for pain research’, Journal of Neuroscience Methods 220(1): 55-63. 2013
  • Gopalakrishnan R, Genc KO, Rice AJ, Lee SM, Evans HJ, Ilaslan H, Maender CC, Cavanagh PR, ‘Muscle volume, strength, endurance and exercise loads during 6-month missions in space’, Aviation Space and Environmental Medicine. Vol. 81, No. 2, 91-104(14), 2010
  • Cavanagh PR, Genc KO, Gopalakrishnan R, Kuklis MM, Maender CC, Rice AJ, ‘Foot forces during typical days on the International Space Station’, Journal of Biomechanics. 43(11):2182-8. 2010.
  • Genc KO, Gopalakrishnan R, Kuklis MM, Maender CC, Rice AJ, Cavanagh PR. ‘Foot forces during exercise on the International Space Station’, Journal of Biomechanics. 43(15):3020-7. 2010.
  • Cavanagh PR, Gopalakrishnan R, Rice AJ, Genc KO, Maender CC, Nystorm P, Johnson M, Kuklis M, Humphreys B. ‘An ambulatory biomechanical data collection system for use in space: design and validation’,  Aviation Space and Environmental Medicine. Vol. 80, No. 10, 870-881(12), 2009

Contact Information

Contact Name: Raghavan Gopalakrishnan
Contact Email: gopalar@ccf.org